GloPID-R Report on Chikungunya, O’nyong-nyong and Mayaro Virus, part I: Biological Diagnostics
The GloPID-R Chikungunya working group just released a report dedicated to the diagnostics of Chikungunya (CHIKV), O’nyong-nyong (ONNV) and Mayaro (MAYV) virus in Antiviral Research’s June 2019 issue. Due to the wide geographical spread and possible further transmission, these viruses have become an ongoing international concern.
“At least 5 million cases over the last 15 years are reason enough to recognize Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as an emerging global health threat. Data from the two largest CHIKV epidemics so far highlight the ability of the virus to spread rapidly over great distances and in multiple locations.”
In 2018, the GloPID-R Chikungunya working group, Chaired by Xavier de Lamballerie (Aix-Marseille University), was established to identify research gaps and make recommendations on this virus. The members have performed a systematic review of English literature on the diagnostic aspects of the three viruses present on PubMed until September 2018.
The working group focuses on the natural history, epidemiology, and medical management of infections caused by these viruses. The recently published report is the first in a series of topics to identify knowledge gaps and propose recommendations for future research. The objective was to suggest relevant research priorities in the field, in order to improve individual patient care and outbreak management.
- The viruses represent emerging global threats
- Similar clinical presentations and geographic areas of co-circulation are significant barriers to specific diagnosis
- Available molecular tests require further evaluation, standardized protocols and availability of International Standards
- Low sensitivity of the assays and cross-reactivity may affect the current identification of antibodies by serological methods
- Experts recommend that a major effort should be done to implement available diagnostic tools
Overall, the report indicates that there is a lack of adequate diagnostics and protocols currently available for ONNV and MAYV and to a certain extent also for CHIKV. Due to the rapid nature of pathogens emergence, diagnostics need to be developed in advance in order to have a rapid response. Finally, the group recommends further investigation to fill current diagnostic gaps.
In the future, the Chikungunya working group plans on publishing reports on epidemiology, clinical treatment, monitoring and vector control.